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PREVENTIVE MECHANISM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
Preventive Mechanism for Environmental Challenges

PREVENTIVE MECHANISM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES

INTRODUCTION

The hygienic disposal of waste materials in Bakery is extremely important in the control of pests. The accumulation of food waste, packaging waste, condemned pans, greasy or sticky papers may attract rats, mice as well as breed pathogenic microorganisms. Regular and safe removal of waste is crucial for the health as well as safety of customers and staff. Correct and hygienic collection, sorting and disposal of waste will also ensure that re-useable waste is recycled.

     WASTE MANAGEMENT

Waste Management Objectives

The objectives of managing waste generated by Bakery are to:

  • Reduce risks to human health and environment
  • Develop or identify environmentally sound treatment, storage and disposal procedures
  • Reduce waste management costs, including potential long-term liability in waste generation treatment and disposal
  • Fully control waste streams and eliminate “unwanted practices” such as use of non authorized dumpsite.

  Handling and Disposal of Waste

Waste may arise at all stages in the production process. Such waste include unwanted raw materials, spillage materials, dough, non-conforming products, packaging waste and sludge from waste water. Organic wastes should be segregated from non-organic wastes to facilitate recycling. Solid wastes will need to be collected, temporarily stored and disposed regularly to avoid environmental nuisance.

  Waste Identification/Categorization

Bakery should employ this procedure to effectively manage wastes generated in its facility. This involves proper identification and classification of wastes material into groups to determine if they pose any risks to the environment and human health. Identified wastes can be categorized into;

1.Solid waste (Combustible and Non-combustible wastes. e.g. packages, cutlery and carry bags, burnt or broken products)

2.Liquid waste (waste water and greaseoil)

3.Gaseous waste (exhaust fumes, volatile organic compounds, milling dust, refrigerant agents)

   Waste Segregation

Waste segregation is the separating and sorting of waste to facilitate recycling and disposal. Sorted waste is easily recycled thereby saving money for the producers. For instance, sorted food waste and spoilt raw materials can be sold to farmers as livestockfeeds.

However, Bakery can achieve effective waste management by  adhering and adaptingto the techniques of waste segregation through the use of suitable receptacles. Classic examples of suitable waste receptacles are the blue, yellow, green and red recycling bins. Each colour is used to collect a particular type of waste as shown below.

  Classic example of waste bins for sorting of waste

  Waste Collection, Transportation and Disposal

Waste disposal should be regarded as a multiphase activity.The different stages (collection, treatment, interim storage, transportation, and disposal) are highly interdependent. The safe collection and transportation of waste form a critical link in the chain between its points of generation and its place of treatment, storage and disposal.

Consequently, Bakery should engage the services of a licensed and qualified contractor to handle their waste disposal. This should be done after sufficient verification to ensure reliable service is guaranteed. The verification requirements should include; possession of technical expertise, financial capability, insuranceand trained personnel.Where an accredited consultant is not available, they should liaise with State Government Waste Management Agency to handle their waste. Alternatively, since it is a small scale industry, they are encouraged to manage their waste properly.

Bakery has to operate in consonance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) designed to ensure that the generation, transportation, treatment, storage and disposal of solid wastes are conducted in a manner that protects human health and the environment.

Whenever possible, transportation of waste from the facility to disposal site shall be made to coincide with this EMP Guideline and RCRA Act of 1976. It should be ensured that whenever wastes are evacuated to the final disposal site, waste in transit (from source to disposal site) shall be monitored using acceptable waste manifests.The waste manifest shall contain the following information;

  • Date Of Dispatch
  • Description Of Waste
  • Waste Quantity
  • Waste Source
  • Designated Disposal Site and Methods
  • Consignee Name and Means of Transportation
  • Confirmation of Actual Disposal Time and Date
  • Attestation by the transporter that no wastes were dumped illegally 

 POWER STATION WASTE MANAGEMENT

These categories of wastes are derived from filling of tanks, maintenance and disposal of spent oil from power plants. Itcontains high quantity of hydrocarbon compounds which if discharged without proper treatment will adversely  affect the environment. Gases that come off from spent oil, even the emissions from the exhaust of power plants can cause air pollution thereby exacerbates the phenomenon of global warming. Besides, leakage can contaminate groundwater.  No spent oil should be discharged into the drains.

            WASTE WATER

Ingredients used in bakeries are sources of organic waste and thus increase Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) which is a measure of the amount of oxygen needed to break down organic waste in water. Flour, sugar, yeast and shortening are the major problems. Thus the primary source of waste water is produced in bakeries through the BOD process where substances have to be broken down.   Other waste water sources include; Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), oil and grease. Waste water arising from cleaning and spillage will contain high quantity of organic matter and other materials which are environmentally detrimental.

In order to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, waste water treatment system are essential to mitigate the risk of pollution. Alternatively, improved waste water storage containers should be provided to collect waste water. This waste water should be properly treated and disposed at an approved location.

  Waste Water Storage Container

 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT 

Effective waste handling and disposal are key elements of environmental management system of any organization. This is predicated upon the fact that effective waste management contribute to environmental sustainability and reduction of both operating cost and future liabilities. Therefore, all non-combustible and non-recyclable wastes from bakery shall be managed using the following recommendations:

The management should;

  • Ensure strict personal hygiene rules, good housekeeping, regular inspection and maintenance of equipment
  • Train employees on waste reduction and re-use/recycling
  • Ensure waste receptaclesare emptied daily.
  • Ensure waste receptaclesare clean, disinfected, kept in good condition, and away from food processing areas
  • Ensure waste receptacles used for the short term storage of waste in production area have no leakage
  • Ensure food waste and other refuse are not allowed to accumulate in the food room
  • Ensure the burning of waste is not recommended. Unauthorized burning is an offence under the Environmental protection Act 1995.
  • Ensure external waste receptacles used for the storage of waste prior to collection and removal from site are lidded. They must be made of durable materials e.g. metal, high density plastic and must maintain a cleanable condition 
  • Make sure temporarily storage points for waste awaiting final disposal are kept clean to prevent contamination and pest infestation
  • Ensure the wastes are removed at least twice weekly from the premises by an approved contractor or the State Government Waste Management Agency
  • Ensure any spillage (e.g. chemicals and spent oil) must not be flushed down the drain. Arrangement should be made for collection by the State Agency or accredited consultant
  • Ascertain waste water is treated andstored in an improved container pending disposal to approved site
  • Ensure scraps, pans, cans are properly sorted out for recycling/re-use, given away or sold to TrashDisposal Committee (Waste Scavengers)
  • Ensure stale food and raw material are sorted out and sold or given away to local farmers as feed for livestock.
  • Ensure ovens and boilers are kept in good operating condition to help prevent pollution. 

 PEST CONTROL 

The presence of pests in food production and preparation areas has always been unacceptable. Such pests include; rodents, cockroaches, flies, ants, weevils, birds etc. The risks posed by pests include;

  • Spread of diseases – pathogens are transferred from the gut or external Surface of the pest
  • Damage to property
  • Contamination of work surfaces and food stuffs
  • Adverse public opinion and dented reputation
  • Prosecution and closure


  Pest colonization

The objectives of pest management should be to preventas far as practicable, the introduction of pests and reduce the condition that may encourage their presence.Pests are known to carry a range of pathogens which can be transmitted to human either through contaminated food or their presence in the environment. For instance, physical contamination of products by rodent droppings, insect parts or other foreign bodies can be detrimental to human health. 

Cockroaches litter the environment with feces, regurgitated substances and taint materials with their characteristic smell. They also contaminate food directly as they move from filth to food indiscriminately, thereby transmitting diseases. 

Similarly,body waste from houseflies e.g spottings and fecescontaminate food thus spreaddiseases.

Therefore, there is need for periodic fumigation of the bakery.

       FACTORS AFFECTING BAKERY OPERATIONS

 Since the activities of bakery may interfere with environmental components, Table 5.1 below identifies the relevant factors which may have deleterious effects on the environment and also outlines the objectives and requirements of FMEnv.

 Table 5.1: Environmental Factors, Objectives and FMEnv Requirements

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

FMENV OBJECTIVES

FMENV REQUIREMENTS

Noise Management

 

 

Noise/Vibration

Protect the amenity of    residents from noise/vibration

impacts resulting from activities associated with the proposed/existing development by ensuring that noise/vibration levels meet statutory requirements and acceptable standard.

  • Identification of sources of noise/vibration and estimates of project-wide noise.
  • Ensure that noise and vibration levels meet acceptable standards and that an adequate level of service, safety and public amenity is maintained.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts.

 

Water Management

 

 

Surface Water Quality

Maintain or improve the quality of surface water to ensure that the ecosystem is protected.

  • Details of site drainage, hydrocarbon use, disposal of plant site waste (including sewage), dewatering, and fate of water used/pumped.
  • Incorporate measures and/or operating procedures to ensure that storm water run-off from the site reflects patterns, volumes and quality that exist prior to development as far as reasonably practicable.
  • Drainage lines are to be naturalized as much as possible and should enhance the ecological values and recreational opportunities.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impact

Groundwater Quality

Maintain or improve the quality of  groundwater to ensure that existing

and potential uses, including ecosystem maintenance are

protected

  • Describe water requirements for any on-site processing.
  • Incorporate measures and/or operating procedures, which will minimize the demand of the development on potable water supplies.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts, including over-abstraction

Wastewater reuse

To protect the aquatic ecosystems, reduce the demand on potable water supplies and prevent off -stream inversions by reusing treated wastewater on site.

  • Describe potential wastewater reuse schemes for the site.
  • Ensure that no contaminated water, including that containing sediments, leaves the site.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts

Air

Ensure that potential air pollutants are contained and that activities do not impact on the natural environment.

  • Identify sources of air pollution.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts.

Particulates/Dust

Ensure that particulate/dust emissions, both individually and cumulatively, meet appropriate criteria and do not cause an environmental or human health problem.

  • Identification of sources of particulates/dust and estimates of project-wide emissions.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts.

Odour

Ensure that operations do not generate odour that causes environmental nuisance.

  • Identification of sources of odour and estimates of project-wide emissions.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts.

 

Waste Management

 

 

Solid/liquid waste

  • Ensure that wastes are contained and isolated from land, ground and surface water.
  • Ascertain that waste treatment or collection does not result in long-term impacts on the natural environment.
  • Identify sources of solid and liquid waste and estimate the proposed amount generated.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts.

Special waste

(Medical, Radioactive,

Chemical)

  • Ensure that wastes are contained and isolated from land, ground and surface water.
  • Ascertain that waste treatment or collection does not result in long-term impacts on the natural environment
  • Identify the source of special waste and estimate the amount generated.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts.

Contaminated Land

 

 

Land

  • Ensure that existing or proposed activities do not discharge to land.
  • Identify activities that have the potential to discharge to land.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts.

Surface Water

Ensure that existing or proposed activities do not discharge to surface water.

  • Identify activities that have the potential to discharge to surface water.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts

Groundwater

Ensure that existing or proposed activities do not discharge to groundwater.

  • Identify activities that have the potential to discharge to groundwater.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts

Hazardous Materials Management

 

 

 

 

 

Resource Storage

Ensure that chemicals and other potentially harmful resources used in the manufacturing process are stored and correctly disposed.

  • Describe the use and management of chemicals and other potentially harmful resources.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts

Pest Control

Ensure that pest control chemicals are used safely and appropriately.

  • Describe the use and management of pest control chemicals.
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts

Compressed/Liquid

Gas

Ensure the suitable storage of compressed/liquid gases.

  • Describe the use and management of compressed/liquid gases
  • Propose measures to manage and/or mitigate impacts.

 

       PROFFERED MITIGATION/MANAGEMENT PLANS FOR BAKERY

The major environmental nuisances associated with the operations of bakery as stated above are noise, air pollution, waste management, effluent disposal etc. The associated activities, impacts and nuisances with proffered management plans are listed below in Table 5.2.

  Proffered Mitigation Plans for Bakery

ACTIVITIES/ ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

POTENTIAL AND ASSOCIATED IMPACTS

MITIGATION / ENHANCEMENT MEASURES

Waste Management

Process waste: e.g. Dough, flour dust, burnt loaves or rejected loaves, market return old bakery products.

 

Packaging Waste: (e.g. bags, tins, wrappers, plastic trays and pallet etc.)

Disposing of packaging materials and wastes

 

Solid waste: e.g. metallic scrap, wooden pallets and other  bakery waste water dry sludge

Environmental pollution

 

Loss of aesthetic quality of the environment

 

Pest infestation

 

Exposure to flour dust can cause short term respiratory, nasal and eye problems.

 

Occupational dermatitis resulting in redness, itching and blistering of the skin

 

  • Management of bakery shall ensure that Process wastes are sold out to farmers as pastry for livestock feeds.
  • management shall ensure that Packaging waste are recycled.
  • Management shall ensure that all food wastes and spillage are removed daily.

 

  • Management shall ensure the removal of wastes to appropriate disposing sites approved by the government

 

  • Management shall ensure that wastes shall be sorted out at source to enable effective handling and disposal.

 

  • Management shall ensure proper waste tracking

 

  • Management shall develop and implement a waste management plan

 

  • Management shall  provide adequate containers for waste collection

 

  • Management shall ensure the engagement of government approved waste management contractors.

Waste Water/Spill Management:

Soil /groundwater contamination resulting from accidental leakages and spills of hazardous substances (diesel, cleaning agents, lubricants, hydraulic oil)

  • Management shall provide containment for oil and liquid discharge.
  • Management shall ensure vehicles and equipment maintenance activities are implemented using proper containment or other strategies to guide against leaks and spills
  • Management shall ensure monitoring during maintenance of equipments to ensure that there is no discharge to the environment.

Workplace Accidents /Incidents    (trips/falls, etc.)

Risk to both life and property

  • Management shall develop standard work procedures where work hazards are identified and addressed.
  • Management shall ensure the availability of first aid facilities in the workplace
  • Management shall ensure the use of retainer clinics.
  • Management shall maintain medical emergency response plan.

Exposure to Noise (including impulsive noise e.g. depanning, bread slicing, dough mixing, power plant  etc

 

Noise nuisance:induces hearing loss, restiveness and impair  concentration

 

  • Management shall ensure workers make use of PPE (e.g. ear muffs).
  • Management shall ensure mmachinery, vehicles and instruments that emit high levels of noise should be used on a phased basis to reduce the overall impact

 

Poor Storage Condition (e.g. storage of raw materials).

Raised moisture levels thus, promoting insect infestation, microbial growth and pollution.

Management shall ensure their facilities are designed to meet internationally recognized food safety standards.

 

Emissions of Air:

Dust may arise from raw material storage, handling and drying activities

Dust expose workers to biological and microbial hazards presenting a risk of occupational lung disease or asthma

 

It is toxic if inhaled at high concentration,

 

Induce atmospheric pollution

  • Management shall ascertain limited exposure by using improvers in liquid, paste or dust suppressed powder form.
  • Management shall ensure the proper use of PPE like Nose muffs
  • Management shall monitor dust fall

 

Exposed to high temperatures near ovens

This could lead to collapse through heat exhaustion and contact burns.

 

  • Management shall develop standard work procedures where work hazards are identified and addressed.
  • Management shall ensure the availability of first aid facilities onsite
  • Management shall ensure the appropriate use of PPE is adhered to.

Spillage from  machinery, Improper handling and storage of fuel

Spent oil  may contaminate  soil, surface and /ground cause spill and fire outbreak

 

  • Management shall provide containment for fuel and liquid discharge as well as exercise caution against fuel spill
  • Management shall develop and implement spill response plan
  • Management shall develop standard work procedures where work hazards are identified and addressed.

 

Risks of fire/explosions:  from inflammable substances stored within the facility,accumulation of breads, crumbs, debris and remnants inside the oven mostly in swing tray type oven.

Hazard to both life and property

  • Management shall ensure the training of staff on fire fighting techniques
  • management shall install fire extinguishers at strategic locations
  • Management shall ensure that fuel storage tanks are kept at safe distances from work areas
  • Management shall educate workforce on risks associated around storage areas and prohibit activities (such as smoking) that can ignite storage tanks
  • Management shall designate no-smoking and smoke areas
  • Management shall ensure periodic SHE trainings for workers

Exposure to Radiation: (The use of microwave oven may expose workers to microwave radiation).

 

 

Physical injury and loss of lives

  • Management shall ensure regular training on its use and proper maintenance
  • Management shall ensure Safety instructional and warning signs are posted at designated places easily access.

Proliferation of weeds around facilities

Loss of aesthetic quality of the environment

 

Bakery shall ensure proper and regular removal of weeds by weeding or use of herbicides.

Poor Housekeeping

Encourage habitation of Pests, Odour, Induce Health and environmental problem

 

Management shall ensure good housekeeping is maintained regularly.

 

Washing of floor, equipment and utensil

Waste water generation

 

Risk of pollution of water bodies

 

Management shall ensure that waste water is properly treated before disposal.

 


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