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Project and Process Description



Bread Making Process

The six stages of bread making are the same for when bread is made by hand, assisted with a mixer or in a bread machine, using Bread Mix or when making from ‘scratch’. Bread machines and mixers make some of the more physically demanding steps easy. The bread at the end result is the same- fresh, healthy and very appetizing.

  1. 1.Accurate weighing of ingredients

The best quality product is achieved when the Bread Mix, water and yeast are used at the recommended proportions, each ingredient relative to the others is more important than the overall quantities.

The instructions with each pack of Landmark Bread Mix provide a recipe with weights and volumes. The use of an accurate set of scales to weigh the Bread Mix and Water will provide the most reliable results, even though weighing ingredients may be more time consuming than using cup measures.

Tepid warm water is recommended when making bread by hand, mixer or if your bread machine does not have a pre-heat setting.

  1. 2.Mixing and kneading the dough

Kneading distributes the yeast evenly through the dough and develops and strengthens the gluten in the flour to form the framework of the bread. A well developed dough can be identified by pressing your finger (firmly) into the surface of the dough - if it springs back, it has been developed/kneaded sufficiently. Underdeveloped dough will result in a holey, crumbly texture and poorly structured bread. Place all dry ingredients into a mixer or bowl keeping the yeast away from the salt where possible, add water and mix/knead the dough until well developed. The time taken will depend on machine or hand as well as temperature of ingredients and quality of ingredients.

Using a Bread Machine: Add all the ingredients to the bread machine in the order recommended by the bread machine manufacturer. Set the machine on the dough setting to make the dough for you.

Using a Mixer: Attach the dough hook to the mixer, and place the yeast, Bread Mix and water into the mixing bowl. For optimum performance, the temperature of the dough after mixing should range from 28 to 30ºC. During warmer weather it is preferable to use cool water, and during colder weather use tepid (warm) water. Turn the mixer on Speed 2 to mix and knead the dough for at least 6 minutes or until it is fully developed. A useful method to determine if the dough has been developed fully, is to conduct a Window Test.

Kneading by Hand: When kneading by hand, considerable effort is required to achieve the desired smooth and elastic dough necessary for best results. Hand kneading dough can take up to 10 to 20 minutes to ensure the gluten in the flour is sufficiently developed. Conduct a Window Test to determine if the dough is fully developed. The best way to knead is to use the heel of your hand to push the dough away from you and then lift it with your fingertips and fold it over itself towards you. Turn the dough a quarter turn and repeat. STOP KNEADING: If the dough forms a window-like membrane and stretches without breaking. KEEP KNEADING: If the dough doesn't stretch easily and tears.

  1. 3.Proofing the dough

When finished mixing and kneading, gently shape the dough into a round and place in a lightly oiled bowl, that is double the size of the dough to allow for expansion/proofing of the dough and seal with lid, plastic wrap or damp tea towel to prevent a skin from forming on the dough whilst resting as it will affect the proofing process. Then place it in a warm, moist, draught-free place to allow the dough to rise/proof. This could be in an esky or microwave with a bowl of hot water to provide the humid environment. The ideal temperature for proofing/rising bread dough is around 30°C. Leave the dough to proof until it is double its original size.

This can take anywhere between 40-80 minutes, depending on the temperature of the proofing environment, temperature of ingredients and type of recipe. When the dough is ready, it will retain a finger imprint when lightly pressed. If left to rise for too long, the bread texture will be uneven and have large holes. If not left for long enough, it may have a heavy, dense texture. The slower the rising, the more even and close the bread texture will be.

  1. 4.Divide, knock back and shape dough

Once the dough has doubled in size, turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and gently degas by pressing the dough out evenly with your hands. Divide the dough into required size pieces. Round the pieces of dough into a ball, this is a gentle “knock back” or degas for the dough as well as an intermediate shape. Cover the dough, allow it to rest before final shape/mould.

The knock back releases excess carbon dioxide produced by the yeast during rising so the final bread won't have a "yeasty" flavour. The intermediate shape brings the dough together and the rest allows the gluten to relax making the final shape/mould easier.

  1. 5.Final proof

Shape the dough by flattening out the round of dough and shape or cut into the desired shapes. A light spray of water on the loaf will allow seeds to be sprinkled if desired. Leave the bread to rise in a warm, moist environment until the loaf almost doubles in size. The time may vary depending on environmental conditions - humidity and temperature.

  1. 6.Bake

In a hot preheated oven until golden and baked through. The best way to tell when the loaf of bread is baked is to tap it on the base with your knuckle - if it sounds hollow, it is baked. Turn the loaf immediately onto a wire rack to cool. If left in the pan, the loaf will sweat and the crust will become soft and soggy.

A good rule of thumb is time bakes and temperature colours; therefore if bread is too dark and not baked, reduce temperature of oven and increase the baking time.

The final step in bread making is the baking process in which the dough piece is transformed into a light readily digestible and flavourful product under the influence of heat. Within this baking process the natural structures of the major dough constituents are altered irreversibly by a series of physical, chemical and biochemical interactions. Several apparent phenomena are caused by oven heat:

  • Expansion in volume (the so called oven spring)
  • The formation of the crust
  • Inactivation of yeast and enzymes
  • Coagulation of the proteins present in the flour
  • Partial gelatinisation of the starch

Meanwhile, the formation of new flavour substances, such as caramelised sugars, pyrodextrins and a broad range of aromatic compounds also accompanies this process. Even tough many of the chemical and physical reactions happening at this stage are only partially understood, no doubt the quality of baked products is influenced by the rate of heat application and the amount of heat supplied the humidity in the baking chamber and the baking time.

The following table and pictures show what is happening at various temperatures to the dough during the baking process.

Table 2.1: Heat transfer in the oven and in the bread




Because of the rising temperature, gasses present in the Dough expand
Enzymatic production of sugars
Solubility of CO2 decreases

45 - 50°C

Yeast dies

50 - 60°C

Intensive enzymatic activity
Starch starts to gelatinise

60 - 80°C

End of the gelatinisation of starch
Enzymatic activity ceases because of the denaturation of the enzymes
Crumb starts to form
Interaction between gluten and starch


Water starts to boil
Formation of water vapour
First signs of crust formation

110 - 120°C

Formation of pale yellow dextrins in the crust

130 - 140°C

Formation of brownish dextrins in the crust

140 - 150°C

Start of caramelisation process

150 - 200°C

Formation of the "crustiness" of the bread and aromatic compounds

> 200°C

Carbonisation of the crust
Formation of a porous black mass

Fig 2.4 Changes in the dough during the fermentation and baking process

 Heat is transmitted to the dough in three different ways:

  • Radiation although this mainly happens when there is a "red hot surface" in the oven as in a traditional pizza oven for instance
  • Convection caused by the turbulence of the air in the oven
  • Conduction where the dough is in contact with the heated surface either the hearth or the sides of the pan

Changes in the dough during the fermentation and baking processAll three heat transmission modes play important roles in baking. Their relative importance depends on the type and the design of the oven.

During the baking process, the heated internal surface of the oven emanates invisible infrared rays, which are called radiant heat. This heat is absorbed by the exposed surface of the products thus increasing their temperature. Thermal radiation is a process in which energy is emitted by a heated body in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Infrared rays travel at the speed of light directly to the point of absorption. This kind of thermal radiation represents the most complex mode of heat transmission.

Convected heat is distributed through the baking chamber by the turbulence of the atmosphere and is transferred by conduction to the products when the hot air contacts their surfaces. In general, the more rapid the air movement, the more rapid and efficient the heat diffusion will be. Based on this concept, fans or blowers are used to enhance the efficiency of the heat transfer by convection. However, the downside of this technique is that the crust can become dry, a characteristic that is not wanted in for instance hamburger buns.

During the baking process, the side and bottom crusts of the products absorb the heat that is transmitted by the pan walls or the stone hearth and this gradual heating of the interior of the bread is called conduction. Conduction heat and radiant heat raise the temperature of the bottom and sidewalls (in case the product is baked in a pan) and then the heat is transferred into the interior of the products

The surface of the dough will get warm quite rapidly whereas the interior of the dough is warmed progressively more slowly as the distance from the surface increases. Within the first third of the baking period the temperature of the dough surface will reach about 150°C, and it will then increase slowly to 180°C or higher at the end of the baking. The temperature of the crumb never exceeds the boiling point of water (i.e. 100°C) and the centre of the loaf does not reach the maximum temperature until the end of the bake. It is my experience, in order to get a well baked loaf with a nice soft chewy and stabilised crumb (i.e. the loaf does not shrink on cooling). One has to maintain the boiling point of water in the crumb for at least about 1/4th of the total baking time.

2.3.2   Meat Pie Making Process

Meat pies are healthy snacks as well as a nice appetizer for a party or for the kids and the whole family.


  • Flour
  • Margarine
  • baking powder
  • Nutmeg
  • Salt
  • Water
  • Corned beef/ ground meat (seasoned w/ onion and salt to taste)
  • Green pepper (chopped)
  • Onion (chopped)
  • Carrot (chopped)
  • Egg

 Other Things you may need:

  • Large bowl
  • Rolling pin
  • Large cutting board
  • Paring knife
  • Measuring cup
  • A round edge (the rim of the bowl) to cut out your crust

Making the Dough
In a large mixing bowl, combine flour, nutmeg and margarine until completely mixed


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