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Executive Summary EMP for Bakeries


Bakeries are increasingly considering environmental protection as part of their planning and operational procedures. Adopting eco-efficient business practices will not only benefit the environment, it will also improve business operational efficiency and reduce cost.

 An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is a framework that helps a company achieves its environmental goals through consistent control of its operations. It also helps companies address its regulatory demands in a systematic and cost-effective manner. This proactive approach can help reduce the risk of non-compliance as well as improve health and safety practices for employees and the public.

This EMP has been prepared for the purpose of providing a stand-alone plan for managing the potential environmental and social impacts of its operations on the environment. This is to ensure that all significant associated and potential impacts of Bakery are either prevented or reduced to acceptable limits. The plan presented in this study provides guidelines, criteria, specifications and procedures for implementing mitigation measures on the whole activities of Bakery industry.

The primary purpose is to ensure that appropriate environmental management practices are followed throughout the life-cycle of the project. However, the activities involved in Bakery are mainly storage of raw materials, mixing, fermentation, baking, sales and delivery of bakery products. Equipments used usually include electrical driven oven, mixer, dough molders, divider, refrigerators, standby generator etc.

The environmental challenges related to bakery industries include air pollution, solid waste, noise from power plants and effluent disposal issues. The main causes of injury to bakery workers are manual handling and lifting of heavy load, slip and trip hazard, machinery, exposure to harmful substances/objects. The occupational health related issues are musculoskeletal injury caused as a result of manual handling of product, occupational asthma, and dermatitis from exposure to flour dust, etc.

This EMP is based on consideration of resource conservation and pollution abatement, of which are liquid effluent, air pollution, solid waste, noise and vibration, occupational health and safety, housekeeping, recycling/re-use of waste material etc. It also takes cognnissance of the legal and regulatory frameworks, which are derived from Laws and Regulations of the Federal Government of Nigeria and International Conventions and Agreements which Nigeria is signatory.

In accordance with statutory requirement of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act 86 of 1992, this EMP contains the following sections.


This section provides the background on EMP as it pertains to  Bakery operations. Details includes; The Objectives, Use and Maintenance of EMP, Criteria, Sustainability and the Legal/Framework relevant to the EMP.     

EMP Objectives

The overall objective of this EMP is to demonstrate that environmental aspects, potentials and associated impacts of Bakery are identified and evaluated. This is to assist bakeries operate in an environment-friendly manner, protecting resources, the environment and the cultural heritage of the community in which it is located.

The EMP Criteria

The criteria that were considered during this Environmental Management Plan include:

  • ISO 14001 2004 (Environmental Management Systems Standards);
  • National Environmental Laws, Regulations and Standards enforced in Nigeria;
  • National Guidelines for Environmental Auditing in Nigeria;  
  • Landmark’s Policies and Procedures on Environmental Matters; 
  • International Agreements such as Conventions, Protocols and Treaties which have been ratified by Federal Government of Nigeria

Administrative and Legal Framework

In Nigeria, there are Federal and State Statutory Regulations that have been enacted to regulate the activities of industries with the aim of protecting the environment in the interest of all stakeholders. Several regulations, in the form of acts, edits, byelaws, ratification of conventions, etc. have been put in place to cater for environmental and social compliance by industries.

 However, the legal and administrative requirements relevant to this EMP are highlighted and discussed in such laws as follows:

  • Regulation, standards codes, and recommended practices of the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv);
  • Other applicable National Statues on Environmental Protection; and Applicable International Agreements and Conventions to which Nigeria is a signatory were also considered. Some of these include:
  • The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and Disposal
  • United Nations Guiding Principles on the Human Environment
  • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development


Project / process Description

Bread Making Process

1.Accurate weighing of ingredients

The best quality product is achieved when the Bread Mix, water and yeast are used at the recommended proportions, each ingredient relative to the others is more important than the overall quantities. The use of an accurate set of scales to weigh the Bread Mix and Water play an important role.  The taste, texture weight and the general outlook of a bread that distinguish it from others are determined by the mix

  2.Mixing and kneading the dough

Place all dry ingredients into a mixer or bowl keeping the yeast away from the salt where possible, add water and mix/knead the dough until well developed. This is done using a bread machine or mixer.

Hand kneading dough can take up to 10 to 20 minutes to ensure the gluten in the flour is sufficiently developed. A Window Test is conducted to determine if the dough is fully developed. The best way to knead is to use the heel of your hand to push the dough away from you and then lift it with your fingertips and fold it over itself towards you. Turn the dough a quarter turn and repeat.

Window Test

  • Pinch off a piece of dough.
  • Using both hands, grasp opposite sides of the piece of dough with your fingertips.
  • Slowly pull your hands apart and stretch the dough by approx 3 - 5cm.
  • The dough should look like a window with a thin membrane in the centre.

STOP KNEADING: If the dough forms a window-like membrane and stretches without breaking.

3. Proofing the dough

When finished mixing and kneading, gently shape the dough into a round and place in a lightly oiled bowl, that is double the size of the dough to allow for expansion/proofing of the dough and seal with lid, plastic wrap or damp tea towel to prevent a skin from forming on the dough whilst resting as it will affect the proofing process. Then place it in a warm, moist, draught-free place to allow the dough to rise/proof. This could be in an esky or microwave with a bowl of hot water to provide the humid environment. The ideal temperature for proofing/rising bread dough is around 30°C. Leave the dough to proof until it is double its original size.

 4. Divide, knock back and shape dough

Once the dough has doubled in size, turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and gently degas by pressing the dough out evenly with your hands. Divide the dough into required size pieces. Round the pieces of dough into a ball, this is a gentle “knock back” or degas for the dough as well as an intermediate shape. Cover the dough, allow it to rest before final shape/mould.

5. Final proof

Shape the dough by flattening out the round of dough and shape or cut into the desired shapes. A light spray of water on the loaf will allow seeds to be sprinkled if desired. Leave the bread to rise in a warm, moist environment until the loaf almost doubles in size. The time may vary depending on environmental conditions - humidity and temperature.

6. Bake

In a hot preheated oven until golden and baked through. The best way to tell when the loaf of bread is baked is to tap it on the base with your knuckle - if it sounds hollow, it is baked. Turn the loaf immediately onto a wire rack to cool. If left in the pan, the loaf will sweat and the crust will become soft and soggy.

A good rule of thumb is time bakes and temperature colours; therefore if bread is too dark and not baked, reduce temperature of oven and increase the baking time.



  • Flour
  • Nutmeg
  • Salt
  • Water
  • Corned beef/ ground meat (seasoned w/ onion and salt to taste)
  • Green pepper (chopped)
  • Onion (chopped)
  • Carrot (chopped)
  • Egg

Other Things you may need:

  • Large bowl
  • Rolling pin
  • Large cutting board
  • Pairing knife
  • Measuring cup
  • A round edge (the rim of the bowl) to cut out your crust

Making the dough

a.This involves mixing the flour, nutmeg, margarine in a bowl using the hand. The dough is carefully kneaded until its wellIt is cut into three (3) or four (4) parts and rolled out to a 1/8 – ¼ of an inch thickness. It is eventually cut into desired shapes.

 Making the filling

Carrots, onion, green pepper and corned beef are mixed in a bowl.

Eggs are mixed in a separate bowl for garnish and the golden cooler on the pie.


One 1 table spoon of the filling is applied on one side of the cut dough and folded over the other side. Using a fork, the folded edges of the pie are pressed down and the egg is brushed on the top of the pies. The oven is preheated for 10-15 at 375F then the pies are placed in to bake for 20 to 30 minutes or until the top is golden brown.



Environmental Management system, this section highlight the specific objective of the EMP and address priorities that must be taken to enhance eco-friendly business operation in bakery, details include; Evaluation of general housekeeping practices, Personal Hygiene, Utensil management, showcase cleaning and use of toilet.

Environmental Management System

The formulation of the EMP ensures that all Significant associated and potential impacts of  Bakery are either prevented or reduced to acceptable limits this is to ensure environmental sustainability of the through its life cycle. The specific objectives of the EMP are as follows:

  • To show that the environmental aspects and potential impacts of Bakery have been identified and evaluated and that measures have been put in place for mitigation against significant adverse impacts;
  • To present a system of management that will be used for ensuring appropriate control recovery preparedness and compliance with relevant environmental regulations, standards, guidelines and  codes of practice in the company;
  • To present an effective monitoring plan that shall be used for ensuring the effectiveness of mitigation measures and for identifying unforeseen impacts of the project.


Housekeeping is all about basic health and safety in the workplace. It goes beyond just cleanliness. It includes keeping workplace areas neat and orderly.

Good housekeeping can eliminate some workplace hazards and help get a job done safely and properly.

The procedures for maintaining an effective Housekeeping include:

a. Removal of unused materials

b. Removing of waste materials and other fire hazards substances from a workplace or work areas.

c. Clean up during shift

d. Day-to-clean up

e. Waste disposal

f. Inspectionensure clean up is complete

g. Maintaining halls and floors free of slip and trip hazard

h. Proper cleaning of tools and arrangement after use.

Utensil Management:

This entails proper cleaning and storage of the used tools and equipments in a hygienic manner.

Showcase Cleaning

This is the general cleaning of showcases to keep it free from grit, dirt growth and other pest habitation.


Ensure compliance with the storing specifications of all food products. Fridges should be cleaned as recommended hereunder. Fridge containing unprocessed food should be cleaned and evacuated weekly.

Fridge containing prepared food should be cleared and evacuated twice weekly. Fridges containing drinks and other bottled and canned products should be cleaned and evacuated forthnightly. All bottles, cans and plastics should be cleaned before stacking into the fridge.

Use of Toilets

An effective way to keeping toilets clean is to ensure constant water supply to the toilet system. Use of toilet instructions should be displayed in the toilet.  Routine checkup and cleaning of not less than three times during sales hour should be carried out. Staff toilet should be washed, disinfected daily and all staff trained on proper use of the toilet.


ES 4


The primary rule of sanitation in Bakery is to pay strict attention to food safety.  This involves all functions and operations. It is an ongoing exercise.

 Hygiene and Personnel Practices

 All food products must be protected from contamination. A sanitation program is as good as the attitude, willingness, and efforts of people. For this reason, regular training is a crucial aspect of an effective sanitation program.

Personnel training should include appropriate sanitation principles and food handling practices, manufacturing controls, and personal hygiene practices.

 Sanitation Principles and Food Safety Practices

It is pertinent that Bakery comply with the requirements of food safety (General Food Hygiene regulations 1995 Act) to maintain good hygiene practice in their operations.

The following are personal hygiene and conduct must be observed by food handling personnel:

  • Not to smoke or spit, eat whilst handling food
  • Food and work areas and Wonk must be kept clean regularly
  • All food waste and spillage must be removed daily
  • The size of the bakery and the equipment layout must allow access for cleaning around the equipment
  • There must be an adequate supply of portable water
  • Keep food containers in separate shelves away from raw materials
  • Use of PPEs must be strictly adhered to. E.g White Apron, head covering, hand gloves, nose muffs etc.
  • Tobacco, gum, and food are not permitted in food-handling areas.
  • All personnel involved in food handling must thoroughly wash hands with soap under warm-running, potable water
  • Injured or diseased personnel should be restricted from food production areas.
  • All equipment must be property cleaned and serviced

Premises and Surrounding

Design and construction

  • The facility should have floors, walls, and ceilings constructed of suitable, approved materials which are durable, smooth, impervious and easily cleaned.
  • Walls should be light coloured and well-joined, and floors should be adequately sloped for drainage to trapped outlets.
  • Openings to outside and/or non-food-processing or -handling rooms or facilities must be sealed.
  • Instrument panels should be appropriately locked and sealed to prevent harbourage of insects.
  • Windows and doors must be tight and close-fitting. Doors in food-processing areas self-closing.

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

  • Systems must be designed and installed to prevent build-up of heat, steam, condensation, or dust, and to remove contaminated air.
  • Positive air pressure is required in microbiologically sensitive areas.
  • HVAC systems should be designed to be cleanable, and air intakes located to prevent intake of contaminated air.

Drainage and Sewage Systems

There should be proper drainage, sewage and waste disposal system

 Sanitary Facilities

Washrooms, Lunchrooms, Change Rooms

  • Self-closing doors must be provided for all washroom facilities.
  • Washrooms, lunchrooms, and change rooms must be separate from-and not directly entered from-food-processing and -handling areas. Such facilities are to be properly ventilated and maintained.


Temperature and Humidity Controls

Where appropriate and applicable, the temperature and humidity of storage rooms for raw materials, ingredients, packaging materials, and food should be maintained and monitored.

Non-bakery Chemicals

  • Detergents, sanitizers, or other chemicals must be properly labelled, stored and used in a manner to prevent contamination of bakery products, packaging materials, and food contact surfaces.
  • Chemicals must be stored in a dry, well-ventilated area which is separate from food handling areas.
  • Toilet faculty must be Kept clean and well maintained.

 Recall Program

An important part of food sanitation program is having a working product-recall system in place. The recall program establishes procedures to be implemented in the event of a product recall. Written recall procedures should be established and tested for validity.


This chapter provides the preventive measures for controlling environmental problems resulting from the activities of Bakery.  It also highlights existence database regarding waste management in the bakery.

This detail includes:

  • Recognition of threats posed to health and environment by waste
  • Strategies to reduce reuse and recycle waste
  • Proffered mitigation/ management guidelines for controlling the nuisances caused by bakery operations

Waste Management

Waste management should be regarded as a multiphase activity in every organization. Waste may generate from all stages of production. Thus, proper and regular waste disposal is crucial to efficient pest control as well as personnel and public health in bakery.  The recycling of re-useable waste is ensured via effective collection, sorting, isolation and disposal of waste.

The specific objectives of managing waste generated by  Bakery are to:

  • Reduce risks to human health and environment
  • Develop or identify environmentally sound treatment, storage and disposal procedures
  • Reduce waste management cost, including potential long-term liability in waste generation treatment and disposal
  • Fully control waste streams and eliminate “unwanted practices” such as use of non authorized dumpsite.

 Emphasis covers the following subsections

  • ØPower station Waste management

This category of wastes contains high quantity of hydrocarbon compound which if discharged without treatment will have adverse impact in the biosphere. Gases that come off from spent oil, even the emissions from the exhaust of power plant can cause air pollution thereby exacerbating the phenomenon of global warming. Besides, leakage can contaminate groundwater.  No spent oil should be discharged into the drains.

  • ØWaste Water

Waste water in bakery arising from cleaning and spillage will contain high quantity of organic matter and other materials which are detrimental to the environment.

In order to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, waste water treatment system are essential to mitigate the risk of pollution

  • ØPest Control:

The presence of pests in food production and preparation areas has always been unacceptable. These include; cockroaches, flies, ants, birds etc which may carry pathogenic organisms. The present of pests may lead to adverse public opinion and loss of reputation. The objective of pest management is be to prevent as far as practicable, the introduction of pests and reduce the condition that may encourage their presence

  • ØEnvironmental Factor

This subsection summarizes the activities, identifies the sources of pollutants , the environmental factors which may be impacted and documents measures to manage and/or mitigate the impacts on the environment. It documents environmental factors, objectives and FEPA requirements.

  • ØProffered Mitigation/Management Plans For Landmark Bakery

This section proffered mitigation/ management guidelines for controlling the nuisances caused by bakery operations.

  • ØGeneral Recommendation For Handling Landmark Bakery Waste

Effective waste handling and disposal are key elements of an organization’s environmental management system. This is predicated upon the fact that effective waste management contributes to environmental sustainability and reduction of both operating cost and future liabilities.

This section allocates and justifies priorities that must be taken to effectively control the impact of waste generated by  bakery.


This section provides information and instruction for addressing any health risks that could arise at the workplace.

The operation involved in the production processes in a bread-making industry expose workers to various hazardous substances such as dust from flour and other ingredients, disinfectants and cleaning products. This exposure is due to inhalation, absorption – through the skin or possibly ingestion; this may cause negative health related problem. For instance flour dust may cause asthma, respiratory, nasal and eye problems.

 Occupational dermatitis In bakeries, dermatitis is caused by contact with liquid ingredients such as olive oil and the handling of flour/dough, sugar, spices, herbs and seasoning. Symptoms of the disease include; reddening of the skin, itching, flaking and blisters. The hands and forearms are most commonly affected.

 This section also highlights key environmental, health and safety risk/liability relating to the bakery. These are associated to Poor Storage Conditions, Emissions of Air, Manual Handling and Repetitive Work, Exposure to high Temperature and Radiation, Entry into Confined Spaces, Transportation, and Fire Outbreak.

 Other element that were considered in the subsections include; Food safety, Recommendations for maintaining good health and Safety standard.



This chapter provides the guidelines for monitoring and ascertaining the level of compliance stipulated in this EMP to ensure sustainable business practices in Bakery.  It provides guidelines for monitoring, reporting, review and necessitate measures such as staff training, operational checklist to ensure compliance with stipulated regulations thus promoting continuous environmental improvement. 

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